Growth Hormone or HGH
Growth hormone or HGH is a 191 amino acid, single chain, polypeptide, protein hormone, that is secreted by your cells, called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. It modulates growth and metabolism and many other complex physiologic processes.
HGH (somatotropin, recombinant growth hormone (rHGH), human growth hormone, growth factor) has a precise molecular weight of 22124 daltons, synthesized by recombinant DNA technology, usually from bacterium. Growth hormone is used as a drug used in humans for anti aging, short stature and viral muscle wasting.
Growth is an intricate process involving several coordinated factors and further depends on the synergistic action of several hormones. A major role of human growth hormone to stimulate growth is to have the liver and other tissue secrete IGF-I. IGF-I causes proliferation of (cartilage cells)chondrocytes, which then results in bone growth.
IGF-I may also stimulate muscle growth. It can stimulate both the differentiation and proliferation of the myoblasts, which are undifferentiated cells capable of giving rise to muscle cells. It also increases amino acid uptake and protein synthesis (regeneration) in muscle, organs and tissue.
Growth hormone has an important impact on protein, lipid (fat) and carbohydrate metabolism. Research varies; in certain cases, a direct effect of growth hormone has been clearly shown, in others, IGF-I appears to be the critical component, and yet, in some cases it appears that both direct and indirect effects are at play, our research at AARL clearly indicates it's both.
Carbohydrate metabolism: Growth hormone is one of several hormones that maintains normal blood glucose. Growth hormone can also have anti-insulin activity, due to the suppression of insulin's ability to stimulate uptake of glucose in tissue and augment glucose synthesis in the liver. Administration of growth hormone at higher doses can stimulate insulin secretion, leading to hyperinsulinemia.
- Protein metabolism: In general, growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis (macromolecular increase) in most tissue. This increases amino acid uptake, protein synthesis and decreases the oxidation of protein.
- Fat metabolism: Growth hormone helps utilize fat by stimulating triglyceride breakdown and adipocytes oxidation.
Effects of Growth Hormone
Growth hormone uptake has two different effects on physiology:
Direct effects are the result of growth hormone's lock and key, receptor site binding on its target cells. Adipocytes (fat cells), for instance, have growth hormone receptor sites. Growth hormone breaks down triglycerides and minimizes circulating lipids.
Indirect effects are mediated by critical ratios of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues, in response to proper ratios of growth hormone. A majority of the growth promoting effects of growth hormone is actually due to IGF-I acting on its target cells, provided there are appropriate ratios of circulating growth hormone. Elevating IGF-1 only by the sole use of amino acids or exogenous IGF-1 only, appears very risky, and may cause run away cell proliferation, autoimmune disorders and diabetes.
Endogenous Growth Hormone Secretion
Endogenous growth hormone is modulated by many things, including age, exercise, nutrition, sleep, stressors, and exogenous and endogenous growth hormone itself. These impact the primary controllers, which are one hormone from the stomach and two hypothalamic hormones.
Somatostatin (SS) is a peptide secreted by several tissues in the body, one is the hypothalamus. Somatostatin inhibits growth hormone release in response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and other factors such as blood sugar concentration.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic peptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone.
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted from the stomach. Ghrelin binds to the somatotrophs and stimulates substantial secretion of growth hormone.
Growth hormone secretion is also part of the feedback loop involving IGF-1 (ratios). Elevated blood levels of IGF-I decreases secretion of growth hormone by directly suppressing the somatotroph, and stimulating the release of somatostatin.
These aggregate factors affect all growth hormone synthesis and production, which then lead to ultimate pulsatile release. The most intense period of growth hormone release is shortly after the onset of deep sleep. Alcohol and sugar can negatively impact both uptake and synthesis.
It is simple, scientific logic...
As your growth hormone DECREASES,
the rate at which you age
Consider that for a moment...
Both growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone excess have very predictable symptomatology, vs. the role of HGH in normal well being. A deficiency state can result not only from a deficiency in production of the hormone, but in the target cell's response to the hormone.
Clinical deficiency of growth hormone or receptor defects manifest as short stature to dwarfism. The symptoms of growth hormone deficiency depend upon the age of onset. These disorders can occur either from being hereditary to acquired disease or trauma.
The symptomatology of excessive growth hormone is also dependent on age of onset. It is observed between two distinctive disorders:
Giantism results from excessive endogenous growth hormone secretion that must begin in young children or adolescents. It is an uncommon disorder, often the result of a tumor of the somatotrophs. One of the most famous giants was Andre, the Giant. Andre reached an adult weight of 500 pounds and 7 feet 4 inches in height. He died at age 37.
Acromegaly results from excessive secretion or injection of growth hormone in adults. An overgrowth of bone and connective tissue leads to a change in appearance that is often facial bone enlargement. Excessive growth hormone can also lead to pancreatic disorders, including glucose intolerance (Type-2 diabetes). Excessive IGF-I has been known cause Type-1.
Uses of Growth Hormone
Decades ago, growth hormone was purified from human cadaver pituitaries to treat children with severe growth retardation. Since the late 1970's, with the advent of recombinant technology, we now have an unlimited supply of growth hormone. This has lead to several other applications.
Recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat children of pathologically short stature. Bio-ethically, there has been concern that this practice could be extended to treatment of essentially normal children as "enhancement therapy". Similarly, growth hormone has been used by some to potentially enhance athletic performance. Although high dose, low frequency, growth hormone is generally considered safe, we must consider long term, potential health risks due to possible pituitary atrophy. In other words, you should be OK unless you stop.
The role of higher dose, long term, growth hormone usage in normal aging remains relatively unclear, however cosmetic symptoms of aging appear to be amenable to growth hormone therapy. This is an active area of research, and additional information and recommendations about long term risk and benefit will ultimately surface in the near and distant future. This is why at AARL, we advocate only emulating age related decline with only a low dose, high frequency, that closely emulates natural and normal pituitary function.
Growth hormone is currently approved as a "food" by the FDA, and used for enhancing milk production in dairy cattle. Providing bovine growth hormone to cows provides an increased milk yield. This is a controversial treatment; it appears that drinking milk from cattle treated with bovine growth hormone does not seem to pose a risk to human health since all proteins are destroyed by the digestive tract.
Pigs are also often raised with porcine growth hormone. Such treatment has been demonstrated to significantly stimulate muscle growth and reduce deposition of fat. Also porcine growth hormone does not seem to pose a risk to human health since the proteins are also destroyed by the digestive tract. .
We Strongly Advocate the use of SOMASTATIN, the ANTI HGH ANTIDOTE and ACTH TESTOSTERONE booster, growth Hormone formula along with any HGH therapy.